Thursday, March 12, 2020

Vasco da Gama essays

Vasco da Gama essays Very little is known about the early life of Vasco da Gama. He was born in 1469 in Sines, Portugal. He grew up as the son of Estevo da Gama who was the governor of the small town he grew up in. It was his father who was originally appointed by King Joao II to complete the journey to India. His father however, died before the voyage commenced. Soon after, da Gamas brother was asked to complete the mission but he turned it down. As a last resort, King Emmanuel requested Vasco to lead the expedition. Vasco da Gama was a well educated man and was therefore fit for the job. He had proven his leadership skills when serving as a naval officer for his country. Da Gamas mission was to find a route from Portugal to India by sea. The exploration of these new places had been encouraged in Portugal for centuries. They realized the economic benefit that could result from this trade route. This was critical to the Portuguese because it would put them at a higher economical world power. He left on July 8, 1497 along with four ships. By November the crew had rounded the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and began their journey north to the Indies. On their way, da Gama encountered many unexpected conflicts. Along the coast of Africa, Muslims had already set up their own trading posts. Especially in Mozambique and Mombasa, the people viewed da Gama and his men as a threat to their already economically stable trading system with India. However some of the inhabitants welcomed the Portuguese right away. A man named Ahmad Ibn Majid joined da Gama in his journey to India and helped him along his route. On May 20, 1498 da Gama finally arrived in Calicut, India. This prosperous city contained a colossal amount of precious pearls and spices. The prosperity of this city at first intrigued da Gama. He seemed to be welcomed by the leader and was graciously taken to one of their Hindu temples. The future trading negotiations seemed to be set by th...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Comparing between the article and the theory Essay

Comparing between the article and the theory - Essay Example These countries include US, Denmark, Canada, Finland, Norway, Russia, Iceland and Sweden (Tromso par. 1). The Arctic region is rich with natural gases and oils. The countries in the Artic Council have cooperated in missions, which would be costly for nations to embark on their own (Tromso par. 6). Such missions include joint search and rescue missions, and scientific researches. This situation is described in the Realism topic from the article on the ‘Theoretical Foundations on Global Governance’. According to the article, realists are entities, which act in a unitary manner to pursue their national interest. The various countries interested in the Arctic region can be termed as realists, since they have come together to form a union and a collaboration that will enrich their individual states. Tromso’s article talks of other countries such as Singapore, Italy, Japan, India and China that want to hold crucial positions in the Arctic Council. Singapore especially has applied for a position as a permanent observer, yet it is situated at the Equator (Tromso par. 1). Additionally, fears are that the economic progress at Artic could result to an oil spill, which could pollute the Artic environment for years. This situation is comparable to the topic on collective or public goods theory from the article on the ‘Theoretical foundations of global governance’. The collective or public goods theory is effectively described by the ‘tragedy of the commons’ by Garrett Hardin who talks of a faction of herders who share a common grazing area. The desire by the herders to increase their livestock led to depletion of the grass and eventually they all lost in the end. Conclusively, Tromso quotes some book titles such as ‘Scramble for the Artic’ and talks of the boundary conflicts between Canada and America over Beaufort Sea (Tromso par

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Crimes on Campus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Crimes on Campus - Essay Example The intent of the bullying person is to gain power over the victim. An individual is said to be bullied when he finds it difficult to protect himself from recurring harmful actions from another person or a group of persons. Bullying students are usually very outgoing and bold without any idea of indignity or remorse; whereas, the bullied ones are already very introverted and hesitant, which makes them prone to bullying. Smith and Sharp assert that school bullying involves â€Å"5-10 per cent of children as being bullied and about 5 per cent of children as bullying others† (5). They state that bullying is generally out of sight of the school authorities, because the bullied students and their peers hesitate in informing their teachers about the bully, and that is why it keeps on going. The National Association of School Psychologists (as cited in Shore 5) estimates that â€Å"160,000 children miss school every day for fear of being bullied†. The description of bullying i s not complete until we describe the aspects of bullying. Bullying can be of various types. Some of these are: Oral bullying: shouting, calling names and spreading rumors about the victim Written bullying: nasty letters and text messages Physical bullying: kicking, hitting, slapping, punching and pushing Isolating the victim from social gatherings Making the victim do things he does not want to do Making the victim feel ashamed of his race, color, religion and language Sexual harassment Cyber bullying: teasing through nasty emails, chat messages and phone calls Bullying can have devastating effects on the bullied student, so much so that he may be forced to commit suicide. He may undergo hypertension, freight, loneliness, anxiety, depression, low self-worth, low grades and suicidal attempts. Glew et al. (1026-1031) found that school bullying resulted in a decline in school attendance, academic outcome, psychosocial adjustment, and psychological health of students. Bullying also crea tes bad impact on the observers of bullying. Since bullying creates an apprehensive environment on campus, students who watch someone being bullied may tend to turn away from their studies feel guilty for not stopping it; or, may even be tempted to participate and support the bullying students. Such students are called the bystanders. Rivers et al. (211-223) conducted a study regarding the mental health of those students who witness school bullying. The participants included 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 belonging to 14 schools in the United Kingdom. The researchers found that â€Å"observing bullying at school predicted risks to mental health over and above that predicted for those students who were directly involved in bullying behavior as either a perpetrator or a victim† (211). The observers are either convinced to take part in bullying or they refrain from involvement or from protecting the victim, all of which are signs of poor mental health. In order to avoid all these negative effects of bullying on campus, I recommend that school authorities should promote interpersonal and helping relationship among its students. Students’

Thursday, January 30, 2020

How Muslim practises reflect Islamic teaching on the role and status of women Essay Example for Free

How Muslim practises reflect Islamic teaching on the role and status of women Essay Explain how Muslim practises reflect Islamic teaching on the role and status of women Islamic teaching and theories are such so that they can be applied to modern life. Islam recognizes the fact that men are generally physically stronger than women, but does not place men above women. They are given different skills to do so women are given the duty of providing food for the hungry, refuge for the weary, hospitality for the guest, comfort for the distressed, peace for the troubled, hope for the insecure and encouragement for the weak. They are expected to cook for the family, clean and give love to her husband. This sounds all very one sided, however marriage in Islam is a team effort- the husband has his expectations and requirements to. Islam treats women as equals to men and that their role is as important as men. The rights of a woman are sacred; ensure that women are maintained in the rights assigned to them [Hadith] A Muslim woman has the right to stay a virgin, unmolested by anyone. She has the right to be looked after when in pain. She does not have to fast during Ramadan, because she is going through so much pain, therefore she must be treated with respect. It is a privilege given to women because Islam recognizes the crucial role they play in life. Since they are burdened with the responsibility of upholding the home and bringing up the children, she is not expected to work or earn money. Allah says in Quran, surah 2, verse 228, and women shall have the rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable A man came to Prophet Muhammad asking, O Messenger of Allah, who among the people is the most worthy of my good companionship? The Prophet said, Your mother. The man said, Then, who is next? The Prophet said, Your mother. The man said, Then, who is next? The Prophet said, Your mother. The man further asked, Then who is next? Only then did the Prophet say, Your father. This shows the importance that Islam gives to women. Islamic teaching about modesty states that men and women, but especially women, should cover themselves up and present themselves modestly so that men do not stare at them. This is not compulsory however, but most women choose to do it anyway. This shows that women do not feel that they are treated inferior to men and being forced to wear it. Instead of totally covering themselves up completely in some countries, they just dress modestly by covering their heads or wearing a scarf. They never wear anything tight. Modesty and faith are joined closely together; if either of them is lost, the other goes also. Every religion has a special character; the characteristic of Islam is modesty [Hadith] This is an example of how Islamic teaching about women is applied in every day life. Men also have to dress modestly. Women do not have to go to the mosque, but instead pray at home. This reflects the teaching about women having to bring up the household. Since this is their duty, they are allowed to pray at home. Because women are not seen as objects, but as equals to men they are given a dowry from the husband when they get married. This is to show that the woman is not just an object to fulfil any sexual desires, or work for him, but that she is a human being. A man being allowed to have more than one wife is not just a benefit to the man. The woman chooses whether or not she wants to marry a man with a wife already, or if the man she is marrying is allowed to have more than one wife after her. It is entirely her choice. By allowing her husband to have more than one wife she will benefit by the fact that there will be someone else to help her bring up the children and to bring up the household. The man is allowed to have more than one wife, but the woman decides it in the end. In Islam, the woman can have any job she pleases, since they are equals. If a woman chooses to work, it is entirely her choice but she does not have to. The husband should treat the wife with respect and not take her for granted. He should not think of her a servant and that she must make his dinner. She doesnt but she probably does because marriage in Islam is give and take. He should consult her when making decisions, because women are just as important and clever as men. So Muslim couples discuss things and work things out together and do not take each other for granted. Women have as much of a right to pray in a mosque as a man, since everyone is equal. All people are equalas the teeth of a comb. No Arab can claim merit over a non-Arab, nor a white over a black person, nor a male over a female [Hadith] What happens is that the men pray at the front, while the women pray at the back behind a sheet or curtain. The reason for the men being at the front is not that men are superior, but to prevent any flirtatious thoughts by the men and help them focus on Allah rather than the opposite sex. There are many rules concerning women, and these have been incorporated into modern life so that they still hold true to the rule.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Women in the Quran :: A Level Essays

Women in the Qur'an The traditions of Islam revolve around the blessed words of Muhammad revealed to him through Allah. These revelations guide Muslims through not only the act of worship, but also through a lifestyle strictly designated in the words of the Qur'an. Those who criticize Islamic customs often accuse the Qur’an of attempting to govern society under prehistoric law. This holy book dates back to the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad in the 7th centuries Clearly times have changed; yet many Islamic customs have not evolved through time. One of the most controversial topics in Islam today addresses women’s issues. Popular American culture portrays Islamic women as veiled and silenced figures living in a world of submission. Feminist groups in the United States focus on Muslim women and attempt to liberate the strong hold of Islamic tradition on women’s freedom. Over 900 million Muslims continue to worship Allah worldwide. Islam continues to thrive as one of the major monothe istic religions across cultures and the followers of Islam respect and defend the words and customs laid out in the Qur’an. Qur'an Text: Word â€Å"woman† used only 18 times in the Qur'an, usually in reference to what she will contribute to a family or what her duties are as a wife, her roles are defined vividly when the word woman is used. From: The Cow [2.221] And do not marry the idolatresses until they believe, and certainly a believing maid is better than an idolatress woman, even though she should please you; and do not give (believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe, and certainly a believing servant is better than an idolater, even though he should please you; these invite to the fire, and Allah invites to the garden and to forgiveness by His will, and makes clear His communications to men, that they may be mindful. From: The Family of Imran [3.35] When a woman of Imran said: My Lord! Surely I vow to Thee what is in my womb, to be devoted (to Thy service); accept therefore from me, surely Thou art the Hearing, the Knowing. The word â€Å"man† is used 304 times, and it most often used to describe the human experience of work, economic status, and interactions with Allah. From: The Cow [2.184] For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know. Women in the Qur'an :: A Level Essays Women in the Qur'an The traditions of Islam revolve around the blessed words of Muhammad revealed to him through Allah. These revelations guide Muslims through not only the act of worship, but also through a lifestyle strictly designated in the words of the Qur'an. Those who criticize Islamic customs often accuse the Qur’an of attempting to govern society under prehistoric law. This holy book dates back to the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad in the 7th centuries Clearly times have changed; yet many Islamic customs have not evolved through time. One of the most controversial topics in Islam today addresses women’s issues. Popular American culture portrays Islamic women as veiled and silenced figures living in a world of submission. Feminist groups in the United States focus on Muslim women and attempt to liberate the strong hold of Islamic tradition on women’s freedom. Over 900 million Muslims continue to worship Allah worldwide. Islam continues to thrive as one of the major monothe istic religions across cultures and the followers of Islam respect and defend the words and customs laid out in the Qur’an. Qur'an Text: Word â€Å"woman† used only 18 times in the Qur'an, usually in reference to what she will contribute to a family or what her duties are as a wife, her roles are defined vividly when the word woman is used. From: The Cow [2.221] And do not marry the idolatresses until they believe, and certainly a believing maid is better than an idolatress woman, even though she should please you; and do not give (believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe, and certainly a believing servant is better than an idolater, even though he should please you; these invite to the fire, and Allah invites to the garden and to forgiveness by His will, and makes clear His communications to men, that they may be mindful. From: The Family of Imran [3.35] When a woman of Imran said: My Lord! Surely I vow to Thee what is in my womb, to be devoted (to Thy service); accept therefore from me, surely Thou art the Hearing, the Knowing. The word â€Å"man† is used 304 times, and it most often used to describe the human experience of work, economic status, and interactions with Allah. From: The Cow [2.184] For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Parle Ivey Case Study

|[pic] | |Parle-G | |[A case study] | | | | | |Date:10/25/2011 | Group members: 1. Divya Gupta 2. Rishabh Deo 3 . Shikha Rastogi 4 . Sonam Agrawal 5 . Swati Anoop 6 .Vrittika Srivastava: 7. Yogesh Joshi |[The case discusses about the Parle-G challenges regarding the manufacturing cost and profit margin. Mr. Kulkarni’s dilemma to increase | |the revenue shares. ] | | | |SNO |TOPIC |PAGE NO | |1. |Present case Situation 3 | |2. |Is Mr Kulkarni’s decision complex or a simple decision? |4 | |3. |Advantages and disadvantages of VFM product. |5 | |4. |Marketing plan to overcome problem. |6 | | | CONTENTS THE PRESENT CASE SITUATION: Parle Products has been India's largest manufacturer of biscuits and confectionery for almost 80 years. Makers of the world's largest selling biscuit, Parle-G, and a host of other very popular brands, the Parle name symbolizes quality, nutrition and great taste.With a reach spanning even to the remotest villages of India, the company has de finitely come a very long way. Many of the Parle products – biscuits or confectioneries, are market leaders in their category.. With a 40% share of the total biscuit market and a 15% share of the total confectionary market in India, Parle has grown to become a multi-million dollar company. While to the consumers it's a beacon of faith and trust, competitors look upon Parle as an example of marketing brilliance.The case is all about the flagship product of the Parle group Parle- G, Parle G is a glucose biscuit and has a market share of 76% in its category, it contributes 10-15 % of the total revenue of Parle. The problem which Mr Kulkarni ,general manager Parle Products Pvt limited, is concerned about, is the complex situation emerged out of the growing input prices. The growing input prices have led the Parle to think on the pricing strategy of Parle G. The brand name â€Å"Parle G† is a Value For Money product. In January in the first attempt to offset rising prices p arley hiked the price of 16 biscuit packet from INR 4. 0 to INR 4. 50. the idea failed and the sales came down by 40% within six months and hence the price rise was rolled back. Four years later management took remedial step to deal again with rising prices and this time focus was on reducing weight of the packet and number of biscuits was also decreased from 16 to 15. Although consumers noticed it but decided to go along with it as far as the company does not tingles with prices. So ultimately company adopted alternate thinking of cutting prices involved and these measures were buying of manufacturing units near to the wholesalers and by franchising the production.Forward contracts were introduced to reduce supply chain costs and addition to all this wax coated paper had been replaced by BOPP paper to reduce cost. With entry of competitors like Britania, HUL and ITC Ltd the situation is getting more complex day by day for the Parle G. Any wrong decision from Parle can have daring c onsequences for their flagship product Parle G. The dilemma of December 2009: A price hike seemed like a necessity to restore the margins; a hike in the price had the potential to increase the margin by 50% and to restore the previous level of 15%.But the previous experience of price hike had already given a bad experience to Parle. The problem with Parle is its VFM image, companies build brand equity in order to deflect the focus of customers from the price. They don’t mind loosening their wallets for a brand which delivers a value on a dimension perceived by them. Parley needs to come out of its perilous VFM image and secondly the dependence on a single brand and a single SKU. Parley G contributes 68% of the annual sales revenue of Parley and the INR 4. 00 SKU was contributing to 50 % of Parley G’s annual sales revenue.The dilemma in which troubles Mr Kulkarni is: 1. Should he launch new SKU’s and new price points. Or 2. Should he continue to tinker with the G rammage. IS Mr. Kulkarni's decision complex or simple? What are the various issues & considerations? Mr. P. Kulkarni, general manager, Parle Products Pvt. Ltd. (Parle) is faced with the dilemma of increasing the price of the biscuit or decreasing the grammage of its SKU. The Indian consumer holds strong brand equity with Parle G biscuit on account of its low cost and value for money (VFM) proposition. The company started as a value for money brand in 1939.This was a marketing perception which has remained intact for last sixty year. But in last sixty years Indian market has opened up and MNC companies are new competitor. Now the same value for money strategy is gnawing at the profit margin of Parle G. Essentially brand is something that create a niche segment for itself and consumers do not mind loosening up their pockets a bit more every next year to associate with that brand and buy it. But here in India, the consumer are very price sensitive and increasing the price leads to the risk of losing the existing and prospective customer. Thus the question that Mr.Kulkarni is faced with is a very serious dilemma and involves complex thinking and decision making strategy. For example in 2004, Parle has increased the price by 50 paisa from 4Rs. to 4. 5 Rs. and sales dropped by 40 per cent within six months. Hence the company has to roll back the price increment. The brand has a strong dependence on the single brand †Parle G† and on its single SKU of 100 gram, which contributes to 50 per cent in sales revenue. The company’s share of domestic biscuit market is at 40 per cent and Parle G’s share of the domestic glucose category is at 74 per cent.This has made the company more dependent on that particular brand which is not healthy. The focus is so much to maintain the low price strategy that other issues such as quality and taste are ignored. Raw material prices of sugar and wheat, which constitute 55 per cent of have increased in the last 18 months. Consequently the margin of Parle G had decreased from 15 per cent to 10 per cent. The price consciousness of customer depends on the household income. The lower and middle class people are most sensitive to price change. In past whenever the price was increased the company lost its sales revenue. Thus Mr.Kulkarni decision is a complex one as what seems a simple solution to increase the price does not go well with the Indian middle class consumers. 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Value for Money Position: VALUE FOR MONEY POSITION (VPM) is the most common positioning category. Most firms position their products to offer great value for their customers. Companies can choose either â€Å"Same (as premium product) for fewer prices† or â€Å"More (of the product) for the same price† pricing strategy. More for the same price is often used at high end products which have superior product attributes but is priced on par with competition.ADVANTAGES of V FM: 1. The company initial product is Parle-G which provides major profit to the company. Value for Money positioning helps generate large sales volume for products. 2. Value for money was the consumer perception that had led Parle-G to become largest selling biscuit brand by volume in the world in 2002 as validated by a study by global market research firm A C Nielsen. Market share is highest for Parle-G because of value to money it revolves to the customers. 3. Parle-G has adopted the market penetration strategy that is low price along with capturing of a large market .The value for money positioning helps generate large sales volumes for the products. 4. VFM is the only value dimension consumers seem to be plugged into with Parle-G . it is also value dimensions they are plugged into with glucose category which ParleG- leads. 5. Due to VMP which has advantage for Parle-G create problem for new entrants like Tiger Glucose brand of biscuits of Britannia ,Sun feast Glucose of ITC Ltd . These new entrants were under compulsion to keep prices low. DISADVANTAGES- 1. It is a very price sensitive market owing to VFM. These being the weakness hold competition as its main weakness. . It could further lead to profit erosion and entry of un-brand players into the market notwithstanding these threats; the company beholds many opportunities each as exports and affluence. 3. Consumer perception was rooted so strongly in Parle- G’S low price that it was undermining other product attributes such as quality and taste. 4. The value for money product is highly elastic in nature and hence the price cannot be increased even to a single unit as it will affect the demand drastically. 5. Parle-G had generally refrained from increasing the price of Parle- G, even when it had no competition .In holding to the price line, Parle had brought disciplining factors to the Indian market. 6. A hike in price had the potential to increase the margin of Parle-G by 50 per cent and to perhap s restore it to the earlier level of 15 per cent. But, if the experience of 2004 was any indication, consumer would be extremely sensitive to a price hike. Marketing plan to overcome this problem: â€Å"Reducing the gram mage is the only way out†: Owing to its VFM image and the valuable brand which Parle G has grown into for the middle class and lower middle class society, playing with prices is like playing with fire for Parle G.Middle class and lower lower middle class constitute the major purchasers in the Indian biscuits industry. Not only Parle G even brands like Nestle’s Maggi and Hajmola have also adopted the same policy of weight reduction. Growing input prices is beyond our control and hence we have to go ahead with weight reduction of current SKU’s. Cost control measures have to follow strictly and obediently to keep margins at par. Parle G for â€Å"specials† category: Parle G is market leader in its category (glucose) with market share of 74% and penetration rate of 84%. The glucose category of biscuits forms a market of 42% of Indian biscuit industry.With increasing income levels in country the choice is showing a shift into premium category. Premium category is the future market to repeat history which Parle G has created in glucose category Parle G should be established also as a premium brand. New varieties can be launched focusing niche customers eg: 1. Parle G chocolate : kids from 6-14 2. Parle G diet :teenagers 3. Parle G protein : for lactating mother and pregnant women 4. Parle G sugar free : for health conscious people. These varieties will fetch totally new segments for Parle G (augmentation) without cannibalising the existing Parle G VFM image.Similar trends are followed by Nestle’s Maggi by introducing Maggi Soupy Noodles and Maggi Pasta. Parle G for institutional â€Å"in bigger SKU’s†: This initiative aims at institutional sales by introducing bigger SKU’s, these SKU’s c an also be used to target the local posh and successful tea stalls. This step will help to counter the unorganised sector which prevails in local areas. Bigger SKU‘s will be used as refilling units. Big plastic containers will provided and hence it won’t be required to repurchase SKU’s instead of only refilling it. These SKU’ will reduce packaging cost and the plastics containers will require only refilling.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Sallinger, Questions and...

For this guided reflection paper, I observed two classrooms, the first was â€Å"Mr. M’s† 10th grade, 3rd period ELA class and the second was â€Å"Mrs. L’s† 11th grade, 4th period ELA class. Both observations were done on April 9th at the same high school. The focus for this paper was the teachers and specific components of their lesson plans. Both classrooms were not only engaged in different reading materials but also in different parts of their unit plan. â€Å"Mr.’M’s† class was just beginning their unit plan on the novel The Catcher in the Rye while â€Å"Mrs. L’s† class was finishing up their unit plan on the novel The Scarlett Letter. Both classrooms had different, specific learning goals, activities, and assessments. â€Å"Mr. M’s† lesson was meant to introduce students to the novel The Catcher in the Rye and get them to start working on their culminating journal project. One learning goal for the lesson can be found in the AIM, â€Å"How can observing our surroundings help us to understand our place in the world†. One way â€Å"Mr. M† addressed this learning goal was through the DONOW, by having the students observe their surroundings and write about what they observed, the students become more aware of their surroundings. This not only helps them understand and connect with the main character Holden, but also helps them discover more about themselves as a person and â€Å"understand their place in the world†. I spoke with â€Å"Mr. M† after class about the lesson and he informed me that he was using